Bitumen is viscous, nonvolatile liquid or solid. Bitumen is a complex colloid system the chemical properties of which are dependent on the properties of crude oil from which it is produced. Pure bitumen is a colloid dispersion of microscopic asphalt particles (dispersion phase). The chemical composition of bitumen is a mixture of various hydrocarbons with molecules of oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen. Hydrocarbons present in bitumen are mostly condensed naphthene and aromatic rings with small number of side paraffin chains. Mass fraction of hydrocarbons is 75-85%, hydrogen 9-10%, oxygen 2-8%, sulphur 5-7%, and nitrogen 0.1-0.5%. Bitumen is partially or completely soluble in various organic solvents. Dissolved fractions of bitumen in solvent are called maltenes or petrolenes, and undissolved fractions are called aspaltenes. The maltenes are a mixture of resins and oil, and they are a disperse agent. For the most part, physical properties of bitumen depend on dispersion degree of asphaltenes in maltenes.

Bitumen

Penetration grades

30/40 40/50 60/70 60/90 80/100 100/120 120/150 Test Method
Specific Gravity @25’ C, Kg/m3 1.01/1.06 1.01/1.06 1.01/1.06 1.01/1.06 1.01/1.05 1.01/1.04 1.01/1.05 D-70

 

Penetration@25OC, mm/10 30/40 40/50 60/70

 

60/90 80/100 100/120 120/150 D-5
Softening point C 55/63 49 min 46 min 40 min 42 min 42/49 37 min D-36
Ductility@25 C 100 min 100 min 100 min 100 min 100 min 100 min 100 min D-113
Loss on Heating(wt)% 0.2 max 0.2 max 0.2 max 0.03 max 0.5 max 0.2 max 0.5 max D-6
Drop in Penetration

after Heating %

20 max 20 max 20 max 20 max 20 max 20 max 20 max D- 6&D-5
Flash Point C 250 min 230 min 230 min 230 min 230 min 250 min 220 min D-92
Solubility in CS2(wt)% 99.0 min 99.0 min 99.0 min 99.5 min 99.0 min 99.5 min 99.0 min D-4

 

Spot test Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative A.A.S.H.O.T.102
Dynamic viscosity @ 60’C, Pa.S 400±80 200±40 100±20 42±9 D2171
Kinematic Viscosity @135’C , cSt 400 min 300 min 250 min 170 min D2170
Test on Residue From Thin Film Oven Test
Retain Retained Penetration after(T.F.O.T),% 55 min 52 min 52 min 47 min 45  min D.5

 

Ductility, (25’C), 5Cm/min, Cm after TFOT, Cm 50 min 75 min 100 min D.113
Viscosity @ 60’C, Pa.S 2000 max 1000 max 500 max 225 max D.2171

 

 

Penetration grades EN

35/50 50/70 70/100 100/150 160-220 Test Method
Penetration@25OC 35/50 50/70 70/100

 

100/150 160-220 EN 1426

 

Softening point, C 50-58 46-54 43-51 39-47 35-43 EN 1427
Resistance to heating @ 163 C EN 12607-1
Retained penetration % 53 min 50 min 46 min 43 min 37 min
Change of mass % 0.5 max 0.5 max 0.8 max 0.8 max 1.0 max
Flash point, C 240 min 230 min 230 min 230 min 220 min EN ISO 2592
Solubility % 99.0 min 99.0 min 99.0 min 99.0 min 99.0 min EN 12592
Penetration index -1.5 to +0.7 -1.5 to +0.7 -1.5 to +0.7 -1.5 to +0.7 -1.5 to +0.7 EN 12591-Annex A
Viscosity at 60C, Pa.s 225 min 145 min 90 min 55 min 30 min EN 12596
Viscosity at 135C, cSt 370 min 295 min 230 min 175 min 135 min EN 12595

 

 

 

 

Viscosity Grade (VG)

VG 10 VG 20 VG 30 VG 40 Test Method Standard
Absolute Viscosity at 60 °C , Poises 800-1200 1600-2400 2400-3600 3200-4800 ASTM D 2171 IS 1206(Part 2)
Kinematic Viscosity at 135°C , cSt Min.250 Min.300 Min.350 Min.400 ASTM D 2170 IS 1206(Part 3)
Flash Point (Cleveland Open Cup) °C Min.220 Min.220 Min.220 Min.220 ASTM D 5 IS 1209
Solubility in trichloroethylene,% Min.99 Min.99 Min.99 Min.99 ASTM D 92 IS 1206
Softening Point. ( R&B), °C Min.40 Min.45 Min.47 Min.50 ASTM D 2040 IS 1205
Penetration @25°C, 0.1 mm 100 gm,5 sec 80-100 60-80 50-70 40-60 IS 1203
Testson residue from thin film oven tests / RTFOT
Viscosity ratio at 60°C Max. 4.0 Max. 4.0 Max. 4.0 Max. 4.0 ASTM D 2171 IS 1206(Part 2)
Ductility at 25 °C, cm, after thin film oven test Min. 75 Min. 50 Min. 40 Min. 25 ASTM D 113 IS 1208
Specific Gravity @ 27/27 °C Min.0.99 Min.0.99 Min.0.99 Min.0.99 IS 1202
Conforms to BIS (IS 73:2006) Specifications